The Elusive AI Boom: Why Businesses Are Hesitant to Invest in Generative AI

The Elusive AI Boom: Why Businesses Are Hesitant to Invest in Generative AI

Despite the potential for transformative economic growth, businesses worldwide are showing reluctance to invest in generative artificial intelligence (AI), raising questions about its future impact.

Many economists and experts have touted generative AI as a catalyst for a global economic revolution, with the potential to drive explosive growth and productivity. However, despite the hype and optimism surrounding AI, businesses are not rushing to invest in this transformative technology. This article explores the reasons behind the lack of capital expenditure (capex) in AI and examines the implications for the future of generative AI.

The Importance of Investment in AI for Economic Transformation

For the full potential of generative AI to be realized, companies must make significant investments in software, communication infrastructure, factories, and equipment. Previous technological breakthroughs, such as the tractor and personal computer, required an investment boom to spread across the economy. However, despite the promise of AI, there is a noticeable absence of an investment surge in this field.

The Current State of Capex and AI Investment

After a period of sluggish growth preceding the COVID-19 pandemic, capex saw a temporary increase as lockdowns lifted. However, geopolitical uncertainty and higher interest rates led to a slowdown in capex growth. On the eve of the release of Open AI’s GPT-4 in March 2023, global capex spending was growing at a modest annualized rate of about 3%. While some companies, such as Microsoft and Nvidia, are ramping up capex for AI, the overall investment plans remain modest.

Modest Investment Plans and Bleak Outlook

Excluding companies at the forefront of the AI revolution, most firms in the S&P 500 are planning to increase capex by only around 2.5% in 2024, barely keeping up with inflation. The situation is even bleaker across the economy as a whole, with American capex falling by 4% year on year, according to Goldman Sachs’ capex tracker. Despite the potential of generative AI, investment in information technologies is also lagging, with a 0.4% decline in American firms’ investment in information-processing equipment and software.

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Global Trends and Productivity Implications

Similar trends are observed globally, with investment spending growing slower than pre-pandemic years. Weak capex growth leads to minimal productivity improvements, as indicated by a real-time measure derived from surveys of purchasing managers. While Japan shows signs of higher capex growth in the future, other regions, such as Europe, face a worsening economic outlook, dampening investment intentions.


The reluctance of businesses to invest in generative AI raises questions about its future impact. While big tech firms continue to pour billions of dollars into AI development, the demand for AI products and services may not meet expectations. This cautionary tale reminds us of past instances where technologists overestimated demand for new innovations, such as cryptocurrencies and the metaverse. The future of generative AI hinges on businesses’ willingness to embrace and invest in this transformative technology, ultimately determining its potential for economic growth and productivity.