Ukraine’s Drone War: How Cheap Drones are Transforming Warfare

First Person View (FPV) drones have revolutionized the battlefield in Ukraine, offering cheap and accurate firepower.

In the war-torn country of Ukraine, a new weapon has emerged that is reshaping the dynamics of warfare. First Person View (FPV) drones, derived from racing quadcopters, have gained near mythical status on the front lines. These drones, guided by pilots on the ground who watch a video feed through goggles, have become a lethal force, capable of delivering cheap and accurate firepower. The development of FPV drones began in garages by unpaid enthusiasts, but now both Russia and Ukraine produce hundreds of thousands of these drones each year. With the ability to perform tricks that artillery cannot, FPV drones are changing the face of warfare in Ukraine.

Cheap and Accurate Firepower

Unguided artillery shells can cost anywhere from $800 to $9,000, while GPS-guided shells reach around $100,000. In contrast, a simple FPV drone costs approximately $400. This affordability, combined with their accuracy, has made FPV drones a valuable asset for Ukraine, which is facing a shortage of conventional artillery. A typical Ukrainian assault group is now accompanied by almost the same number of drone operators, with FPV pilots playing a crucial role. These drones can chase vehicles or soldiers, fly into buildings or trenches, and relay real-time pictures back to their operators, providing a persistent and insidious threat.

Psychological Advantages

In addition to their cheap and accurate firepower, FPV drones also offer psychological advantages on the battlefield. Unlike artillery barrages that come in waves, drones can loiter near their targets, striking at any time. This creates a constant threat that forces troops to disperse and move in small groups under the cover of darkness. Ukrainian drones have taken out hundreds of pieces of Russian equipment, including tanks and artillery pieces, in a single week. The threat of drone attacks keeps troops on edge and disrupts their operations.

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Drones and Artillery: A Powerful Combination

While some drone advocates envision a future where disposable aircraft replace big guns entirely, the more common view is that drones will revolutionize warfare alongside artillery, rather than replacing it. Artillery still holds advantages in terms of firepower and the ability to fire in adverse weather conditions. Skilled FPV pilots can guide drones to paralyze vehicles and force their crews out, allowing artillery to hit the position. This synergy between drones and artillery makes them a powerful combination that cannot be easily replaced.

Countermeasures and Future Developments

As drones become more prevalent on the battlefield, countermeasures to stop them have also emerged. Electronic warfare, such as powerful jammers that block radio signals between drones and their operators, is one such countermeasure. However, drones can have their electronics hardened to resist jamming, and newer FPV drones come with swappable radio chips, making them harder to counter. The effectiveness of drones also relies on skilled pilots, who have improved their proficiency over time.

The cost of drones may increase as armies become more adept at defending against them. However, some argue that cheaper drones will remain effective, and standard military procurement is bloated and inefficient. Autonomous object recognition, which would allow drones to complete their attacks autonomously even when jammed, is a sought-after capability. While not yet reliable, advancements in this area could change the landscape of drone warfare.


The emergence of FPV drones has transformed the battlefield in Ukraine. These cheap and accurate weapons offer a new level of firepower and psychological advantage. While they may not replace conventional artillery, drones have become an integral part of the Ukrainian arsenal. As countermeasures and advancements in technology continue to evolve, the future of drone warfare remains uncertain. However, one thing is clear: drones have forever changed the way wars are fought.

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