Reprogrammable Transistors: A Breakthrough in Circuit Design

TU Wien Researchers Develop Intelligent Transistors for Flexible Circuitry

Advancements in microelectronics have long been driven by the miniaturization of components. However, as we approach the atomic scale, further miniaturization becomes increasingly challenging. In a groundbreaking development, researchers at TU Wien have pioneered a new approach to circuit design using reprogrammable transistors. These transistors can be switched between different tasks, allowing for flexible and adaptable circuit functionality. This breakthrough not only saves manufacturing costs and energy but also enables higher computing speeds. The research team’s findings, published in IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, could revolutionize the field of microelectronics.

A Completely New Transistor Concept:

Traditionally, microelectronics rely on semiconductors that are intentionally contaminated with foreign atoms, a process known as doping. Doped semiconductors determine the flow of current and fix the function of transistors during manufacturing. In contrast, the transistors developed at TU Wien do not contain any doped material. Instead, the behavior of charge carriers is controlled by electric fields through a process called “electrostatic doping.” This innovative approach replaces the complex and expensive process of doping with foreign atoms, offering unparalleled flexibility in circuit design.

Maximizing Flexibility and Functionality:

To achieve maximum flexibility, the research team had to develop components that can be operated by either transporting electrons or transporting holes, depending on the desired functionality. This posed a significant challenge that was overcome at TU Wien. By eliminating the need for fixed functionality, the same surface area can now accommodate more functionality. This parameter is crucial for the chip industry, as it allows for the integration of multiple tasks into a single circuit. The new technology promises efficient data processing and resource-saving capabilities, eliminating the need to send information between different blocks and reducing both time and energy consumption.

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Not Just Transistors, but Functional Circuits:

In 2021, the research team presented the first intelligent, configurable transistors. Now, they have achieved a major milestone by demonstrating that all basic logic circuits can be assembled using these transistors. The components can be reconfigured to transform one circuit into another, offering unprecedented versatility. The team is already collaborating with chip industry companies, generating significant interest in their breakthrough. Importantly, this innovative approach does not require new materials or processes, as it utilizes silicon and germanium, which are commonly used in microelectronics.


The development of reprogrammable transistors marks a significant advancement in circuit design. As the limitations of miniaturization become apparent, the ability to switch between different tasks on a fundamental hardware level offers a promising solution. This breakthrough has the potential to revolutionize microelectronics, enabling the creation of intelligent, self-learning, and adaptable computer systems. The research conducted at TU Wien opens up new possibilities for faster, more energy-efficient computing, and paves the way for the next generation of electronic devices.