Exploring Factor-Based Investing: Beyond Market Capitalization

Exploring Factor-Based Investing: Beyond Market Capitalization

Diversifying Investment Strategies for Enhanced Returns

When it comes to investing, many Indian mutual fund investors tend to focus solely on market capitalization (m-cap) as the primary factor for portfolio allocation. However, this approach may overlook other factors that can significantly impact returns. In recent years, the mutual fund industry has introduced factor-based funds that track various Nifty indices, such as momentum, low volatility, quality, and value. These factor-based strategies offer investors the opportunity to diversify their portfolios and potentially achieve better risk-adjusted returns. In this article, we will delve into the world of factor-based investing and explore how it can enhance investment outcomes.

The Limitations of Market Capitalization

Market capitalization, or m-cap, is a widely used measure to determine the size and value of a company. It is calculated by multiplying the number of a company’s outstanding shares by the current market price of each share. The largest m-cap companies are often considered the most valuable, with high liquidity and a large investor base. However, capitalization weighting, which allocates investments based on m-cap, may favor stocks that are already discovered by the market and potentially overvalued. This approach may result in lower exposure to undervalued stocks and limited diversification within the equity portfolio.

Introducing Factor-Based Index Strategies

To address the limitations of m-cap-based investing, factor-based index strategies have emerged. These strategies categorize stocks based on factors such as momentum, low volatility, quality, and value. For example, the ‘Nifty200 Momentum 30’ Index tracks the top 30 companies within the Nifty 200 universe based on their past six-month and 12-month price returns, adjusted for volatility. The Nifty Low Volatility 50 Index focuses on the least volatile stocks, measured by the standard deviation of daily price returns over the past year. The Nifty100 Quality 30 Index selects the top 30 companies from the Nifty 100 index based on quality scores derived from return on equity, financial leverage, and average change in earnings. Lastly, the Nifty500 Value 50 Index includes 50 companies from the Nifty 500 index based on their value scores determined by earnings to price ratio, book value to price ratio, sales to price ratio, and dividend yield.

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The Benefits of Factor-Based Investing

Factor-based investing offers several advantages over traditional m-cap-based strategies. Different factors tend to perform well in different market cycles, providing diversification and potentially reducing risk. For instance, the momentum factor tends to outperform during bull markets, while quality and low volatility factors offer downside protection during bear markets. The value factor, on the other hand, tends to shine during market recoveries from bearish phases. By incorporating multiple factors in their investment approach, investors can reduce factor-specific risks and potentially achieve better risk-adjusted returns.

Factor Timing and Multi-Factor Approach

Timing factors, just like timing the overall market, is challenging without the benefit of hindsight. Therefore, a multi-factor approach to investing can be beneficial. Investors can add or reduce exposure to specific factors based on their market views. For example, adding a momentum index to an existing portfolio can amplify returns, while incorporating a low volatility index can help reduce overall portfolio volatility. Factor-based indexes can be accessed through mutual fund products that track these indices, allowing investors to gain exposure to a diversified portfolio mirroring the relevant index. Factor investing lies between active and passive investing, aiming to combine the best of both worlds by seeking better risk-adjusted returns rather than solely generating alpha.


Factor-based investing provides a compelling alternative to traditional m-cap-based strategies, allowing investors to diversify their portfolios and potentially achieve better risk-adjusted returns. By considering factors such as momentum, low volatility, quality, and value, investors can navigate different market cycles and reduce exposure to specific risks. While factor timing may be challenging, a multi-factor approach can provide a more balanced investment strategy. As the mutual fund industry continues to introduce factor-based funds, investors now have the opportunity to explore new avenues for enhancing their investment outcomes.

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