Life and Information: A Planetary Perspective

Life and Information: A Planetary Perspective

Understanding the role of information in the biosphere and the impending dominance of the technosphere

When contemplating the essence of life, many focus on biological processes such as reproduction and metabolism. However, there is another perspective that emphasizes the central role of information in defining life. Unlike other physical systems, living organisms possess the unique ability to use, store, transfer, and process information. This perspective sheds light on the distinction between life and other natural phenomena. In the context of the biosphere, which encompasses all life on Earth, understanding the relationship between information and planetary-scale processes becomes crucial. This article explores the concept of information in the biosphere and its implications for the future.

Life as a Planetary Process

The concept of the biosphere, coined by Russian biogeochemist Vladimir Vernadsky, recognizes that life is an active participant in shaping the trajectory of Earth’s geophysical evolution. The biosphere, along with other geospheres such as the atmosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, and lithosphere, plays a vital role in the planet’s development. This understanding has become foundational in various scientific disciplines, including climate science and astrobiology.

Information as a Fundamental Component of Life

Viewing information as an essential aspect of life prompts the question of how to integrate this perspective into a planetary-scale understanding. Although the complexity of information’s involvement with the biosphere poses challenges, recent research has made significant strides in addressing this issue. A study led by astrophysicist Manasvi Lingam, in collaboration with Amedeo Balbi, delves into the role of information transmission in the biosphere.

Estimating Information Flow in the Biosphere

To estimate the total amount of information moved within the biosphere, Lingam focused on cellular communication. By calculating the number of prokaryotic cells in the biosphere, estimated at approximately 100,000 trillion trillion, and considering the number of communication partners per cell, Lingam arrived at a global information transmission rate of 10^24 bits per second. This staggering amount of information highlights the extensive communication occurring within the biosphere.

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Comparing the Biosphere to the Technosphere

To provide a meaningful comparison, Lingam also estimated the global information transfer rate of the technosphere, which encompasses human-made technology deployed worldwide. Utilizing internet traffic as a basis, the technosphere’s transmission rate was calculated to be 10^14 bits per second. Remarkably, this is over a billion times less information per second than the biosphere currently transmits. However, the rapid expansion of digital technology suggests that the technosphere will surpass the biosphere in information transfer by the early 22nd century.

Implications for the Future

The impending dominance of the technosphere in terms of information transfer raises intriguing questions about the evolution of our species and the planet. By 2113, the technosphere is projected to move more bits than the biosphere, from which humans emerged. This shift signifies a significant milestone in the relationship between humans, technology, and the natural world. The consequences and implications of this transition remain uncertain, but the ability to pose such questions highlights the power of adopting a global perspective on information and life.


Understanding the role of information in the biosphere and its comparison to the technosphere provides valuable insights into the evolving dynamics of our planet. The biosphere’s capacity to transmit vast amounts of information showcases the complexity and interconnectedness of life on Earth. As human technology continues to advance, the technosphere is poised to surpass the biosphere in information transfer. This milestone prompts reflection on the future trajectory of our species and the planet. By adopting a planetary perspective, we gain a deeper understanding of the intricate relationship between information, life, and the evolving dynamics of our world.

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