Crumple-Recoverable Electronics: Taking Inspiration from Nature for Flexible and Durable Devices

Crumple-Recoverable Electronics: Taking Inspiration from Nature for Flexible and Durable Devices

Researchers at Ajou University in South Korea have developed a design for crumple-recoverable electronics inspired by the unfolding mechanism of butterfly wings.

In a breakthrough for the field of electronics engineering, researchers at Ajou University and other South Korean institutes have unveiled a new design for crumple-recoverable electronics. These innovative devices have the ability to regain their original shape after being crumpled or compressed, offering a solution to the challenge of creating flexible and durable electronics. Drawing inspiration from the natural world, the researchers have taken cues from the way butterfly wings unfold from a crumpled state. The design, outlined in a paper published in Nature Electronics, holds promise for a range of applications, from wearable technology to self-healing materials.

Mimicking Nature’s Wing-Unfolding Mechanism

The researchers sought to replicate the mechanism that allows butterfly wings to unfold smoothly after emerging from their cocoon. Before a butterfly is born, its wings are folded and crumpled inside the cocoon. To prevent damage, the wings are wet with a biological fluid. As the fluid evaporates, the wings slowly unfold, eliminating the wrinkles they exhibited while folded. The team aimed to create a design for electronics that could similarly recover their original shape after being crumpled.

The Composite Material with Variable Stiffness

To achieve their goal, the researchers developed a composite material with variable stiffness. Unlike previous approaches, this material can modulate its hardness and softness without the need for additional substances. This unique property makes it ideal for creating flexible and sturdy electronics that do not exhibit permanent wrinkles even after being crumpled.

The Core Design: Silver Nanowires, Shape Memory Polymer, and Elastomer

The crumple-recoverable electronics design integrates three key elements: silver nanowires, a shape memory polymer (SMP), and an elastomer. The silver nanowires serve as both conductive elements and mechanical sensors. By applying heat through the nanowires, the SMP undergoes a phase change, becoming rigid and allowing the electronics to unfold and regain their original shape without any permanent damage.

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Advantages and Potential Applications

The unique design offers several advantages, including the ability to modulate the stiffness of devices according to user needs. The researchers have demonstrated the design’s effectiveness by creating a crumple-recoverable touch panel display. The display can be crumpled into a tiny capsule and then unfolded, becoming a smooth and flat surface capable of detecting touch. This design holds potential for customizable shape-changing electronic devices, wearable technology, robotics, and compressible displays. It could also be applied to create self-healing materials for advanced medical and engineering applications.

Future Developments and Commercialization

The research team is now focused on using their design to create various electronics that can be commercialized. They are currently working on a display that integrates a light-emitting layer and touch panels, which can be crumpled and reduced in size without forming wrinkles or compromising functionality. The team aims to make their technology applicable to various modules needed in foldable phones, aligning with the evolving needs of modern electronics.


The development of crumple-recoverable electronics inspired by the unfolding mechanism of butterfly wings represents a significant advancement in the field of electronics engineering. By mimicking nature’s resilience and adaptability, these innovative devices offer a novel approach to creating flexible and durable electronics. The potential applications are vast, ranging from wearable technology to self-healing materials. As researchers continue to refine the design and explore new possibilities, crumple-recoverable electronics may soon become an integral part of our daily lives, revolutionizing the way we interact with technology.