Graphene Semiconductor Outperforms Silicon, Paving the Way for Future Computing

Graphene Semiconductor Outperforms Silicon, Paving the Way for Future Computing

The world’s first functional graphene semiconductor has demonstrated superior performance compared to silicon, indicating its potential as the future of computing.

As the limits of silicon-based computer chips are being reached, scientists are exploring alternative materials that can revolutionize the field of computing. One such material is graphene, a two-dimensional form of carbon known for its exceptional strength and conductivity. A team of researchers led by Georgia Tech physics professor Walter de Heer has successfully developed a graphene semiconductor by growing graphene on silicon carbide wafers. Their groundbreaking work has demonstrated that graphene outperforms silicon in terms of electron flow and efficiency, suggesting that it could play a pivotal role in the future of computing.

The Role of Semiconductors in Computing

Semiconductors, materials that can conduct electricity under specific conditions, have been the backbone of computing for decades. By utilizing semiconducting silicon in microchips, scientists have been able to control the flow of electricity and communicate with computers using the binary language of 1s and 0s. However, as the demand for faster, more efficient computing grows, the limitations of silicon are becoming increasingly apparent.

The Promise of Graphene

Graphene, with its exceptional properties, has emerged as a promising alternative to silicon. Not only is it an incredibly robust material capable of handling large currents, but it also remains stable without heating up and falling apart. However, one significant hurdle has stood in the way of using graphene in electronics: its lack of natural semiconducting properties.

Doping Graphene to Create a Semiconductor

In their quest to harness the potential of graphene, de Heer’s team has made significant strides in developing a graphene semiconductor. Through years of research and refinement, they have successfully grown graphene on silicon carbide wafers and found a way to induce semiconducting properties in the material. By “doping” the graphene with atoms, the researchers created a transistor, a crucial component that controls the flow of electricity in a chip.

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Superior Performance of Graphene

In a study published in Nature, de Heer’s team demonstrated that electrons flowed more easily through the graphene semiconductor than through a silicon-based one. This finding suggests that graphene could enable faster computing and more efficient electron movement. De Heer likened the difference to driving on a gravel road versus a freeway, highlighting the increased efficiency and reduced heat generation of graphene.

Considerations for Adoption

While the electronics industry is not expected to immediately abandon silicon in favor of graphene, the superior performance of graphene in this study raises the possibility of a future shift. However, factors such as cost, durability, ease of manufacturing, and more will influence the adoption of any new material. Nevertheless, de Heer remains confident that graphene will play a central role in the next major transformation of electronics.


The development of a functional graphene semiconductor marks a significant milestone in the quest for alternative materials in computing. With its exceptional properties and superior performance compared to silicon, graphene shows great promise for the future of computing. While the transition from silicon to graphene may not happen overnight, the potential of this supermaterial cannot be ignored. As technology continues to evolve, graphene may well become the paradigm for the next 50 years, ushering in a new era of faster, more efficient computing.